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New Modes of Innovation: Managerial & Strategic Business Practices & Open Innovation (UK~IRC)

Aims & objectives

The growing interest in open innovation has been driven by the phenomenon where organisations are increasingly moving toward network-based forms of innovation, sourcing ideas through licensing agreements, formal alliances and mergers and acquisitions and the use of a wide variety of sources of knowledge for innovation. Although attempts to examine open innovation using the UK innovation survey have made some progress, we still lack in-depth data at the sectoral level and a clear theoretical understanding of how firms build capabilities to be open and how they can successful integrate external actors into their innovation processes. 

In order to deepen and extend our existing knowledge on the nature and extent of open innovation among UK firms, this project aims to shed light on the organizational mechanisms and capabilities as well as institutional arrangements that are required to foster effective open innovation. In particular, it addresses three questions:

  • How do patterns of usage of OI practices vary across firms, sectors and sizes?
  • What are the factors driving the firms' usage of OI practices?
  • How does the firms' usage of OI practices affect their innovativeness and performance?

Our "open innovation" survey among UK firms with up to 999 employees, covering both manufacturing and business services sectors in 2010 resulted in 1202 completed interviews. The full report 'Open innovation choices: what is British enterprise doing?' was published in June 2011 and a launch event was held at NESTA. Subsequently, the report was presented to an OECD NESTI meeting and this may result in collaboration over the creation of an open innovation module that could be bolted on to existing innovation surveys (particularly CIS).

We have also actively engaged in academic, policymaker and practitioner community to discuss and disseminate our research. Several papers are being prepared by members of the team and a number have been accepted for publication. A key conference is to be held in June to celebrate a decade since Chesbrough coined the term open innovation and a special issue of Research Policy on "Open Innovation" and several members of the team have had papers accepted for this conference. 

In addition to this exploitation of the results of our survey, other case study work has been initiated that will provide rich insights into how open innovation does, and does not, work.

Journal articles

Ahn, J., Mortara, L. and Minshall, T. (2013) 'The effects of open innovation on firm performance: a capacity approach', Science, Technology and Innovation Policy Review 4(1): 74-93.

Alexy, O., Henkel, J., and Wallin, M. (2013) 'From closed to open: job role changes, individual predispositions, and the adoption of commercial open source software development', Research Policy, 42 (8): 1325-1340.

Alexy, O., George, G., and Salter, A. (2013) 'Cui bono? The selective revealing of knowledge and its implications for innovative activity', Academy of Management Review, 38 (2): 270-291.

Alexy, O. and Reitzig, M. (2013) 'Private-collective innovation, competition, and firm's counterintuitive appropriation strategies', Research Policy, 42 (4): 895-913.

Chesbrough, H, Vanhaverbeke, W., Salter A. and West, J. (Special Issue Co-Editors) 'Open Innovation: New Empirical and Theoretical Directions', Research Policy, forthcoming.

Criscuolo, P, Salter, A. and ter Wal, A. 'Going underground: bootlegging and individual innovative performance', Organization Science, forthcoming.

Henkel, J., Schöberl, S., Alexy, O. (2013) 'The emergence of openness: how firms learn selective revealing in open innovation', Research Policy, forthcoming.

Kuo, Y.-S., Kuo, T.-K., Lu, H.-P. and Minshall, T. (2013) 'Exploring an effective model of new product development in medical devices: a knowledge cluster approach', International Journal of Technology Management, Special Issue: Communities, Networks and Ecosystems in R&D Management 63(3/4): 295-312.

Laursen, K. and Salter, A. (2013) 'The paradox of openness: legal appropriability strategy and the use of external sources of knowledge', Research Policy, forthcoming.

Lubik, S., Garnsey, E., Minshall. T. and Platts, K. (2013) 'Maximizing value creation from the innovation environment: partnership strategies from university spin-outs', R&D Management 4(2): 136-150.

Lubik, S., Lim, S., Platts, K. and Minshall, T. (2013) 'Market-pull and technology-push in manufacturing start-ups in emerging industries', Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management (1): On line via EarlyCite at bit.ly/RBXjlb.

Mina, A, Bascavusoglu-Moreau, E. and Hughes, A. (2013) 'Open service innovation and the firm's search for external knowledge', Research Policy, published online and forthcoming in print www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0048733313001200. 

Mina, A., Bascavusoglu-Moreau, E. and Hughes, A. (2013) 'Exploiting knowledge flows: openness and the innovative performance of business services' Best Paper Proceedings, 2013 Academy of Management Meeting.

Perkmann, M., Tartari, V., McKelvey, M., Autio, E., Broström, A., D'Este, P., Fini, R., Geuna, A., Grimaldi, R., Hughes, A., Krabel, S, Kitson, M., Llerena, P., Lissoni, F., Salter, A., and Sobrero, M. (2013) 'Universities and the third mission: a systematic review of research on external engagement by academic researchers', Research Policy, 42: 423-442.

Puranam, P., Alexy, O. and Reitzig, M. (2013) What's 'new' about new forms of organizing? Academy of Management Review, forthcoming.

Theyel, N., (2013) 'Extending open innovation throughout the value chain by small and medium-sized manufacturers', International Small Business Journal, 31 (3): 256-274.

Zhou, Y., Xu, G., Minshall, T. and Su., J. (2013) 'A policy dimension required for technology roadmapping: learning from the development of emerging wind energy industry in China', International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development, 12(1): 3-21.

Alexy, O., George, G. and Salter, A. (2012) 'Cui bono? The selective revealing of knowledge and its implications for innovative activity', Academy of Management Review, published ahead of print September 28.

Alexy O., Criscuolo, P. and Salter, A.J. (2012) 'No soliciting: managing unsolicited ideas for R&D', California Management Review, 54:116-139. 

Alexy, O., George, G. (2012) 'Category divergence, straddling, and currency: open innovation and the legitimation of illegitimate categories', Journal of Management Studies, (forthcoming).

Barker, R., Hendry, J., Roberts, J., & Sanderson, P. (2012) 'Can company-fund manager meetings convey informational benefits? Exploring the rationalisation of equity investment decision making by UK fund managers' Accounting, Organizations & Society, 37: 207-222.

Cosh, A., Fu, X. and Hughes, A. (2012) 'Organisation structure and innovation performance in different environments', Small Business Economics 33: 301-317.

Criscuolo, P., Nicoloau, N. and Salter A. (2012) 'The elixir or burden of youth? Exploring differences among start-ups and established firms in innovation behaviour' Research Policy, 41: 319-333.

Gann, D. Salter, A, Philips, N and Dodgson, M. (2012) 'Inside the World of the Project Baron', MIT Sloan Management Review, 53: 63-71. 

Lim, S. S., S. Lubik, T. Minshall and K. Platts (forthcoming) 'Market-pull and Technology-push in Manufacturing Start-ups in Emerging Industries' Journal of Manufacturing Technology Management 24(1).

Perkmann, M. and Salter A. (2012) 'Creating effective partnerships with universities', MIT Sloan Management Review, 53(4): 79-88.

Tartari V., Salter A., D'Este P. (2012) 'Crossing the Rubicon: Exploring the factors that shape academics' perceptions of the barriers to working with industry', Cambridge Journal Of Economics, 36: 655-677.

Theyel, N. 'Extending open innovation throughout the value chain by small and medium-sized manufacturers'. The special issue of the International Small Business Journal on 'Open Innovation in SMEs: An International Perspective on a Dynamic Approach to Contemporary Entrepreneurship'. (Forthcoming).

Theyel N., and Cosh A. (2012) 'Open Innovation - a Gold Mine or Fool's Gold for Young Firms?' Best Paper Proceedings of the 2012 Academy of Management Meeting. 

Zhou, Y. and Minshall, T. (2012). 'Building global products and competing in innovation: the role of Chinese university spin-outs and required innovation capabilities', International Journal of Technology Management Special issue: Global Products from Innovation Labs in Developing Countries.

Zhou, Y., Xu, G., Zhi, Q., Zhang, F., Minshall. T. and Su, J. (2012) 'Roadmapping an emerging energy technology: an ex-ante examination of dimethyl ether development in China' International Journal of Product Development 17(3/4): 296-310.

Zhou, Y., Xu, G., Minshall, T.H.W. and Su, J. (2012) 'A policy dimension required for technology roadmapping: learning from the development of emerging wind energy industry in China.' International Journal of Environment and Sustainable Development.

Clarysse, B. Tartari, V. and Salter A. (2011) 'The impact of entrepreneurial capacity, experience and organizational support on academic entrepreneurship' Research Policy, 40: 1084-1093.

Hughes, A. (2011)' Open innovation, the Haldane Principle and the new production of knowledge: science policy and university-industry links in the UK after the financial crisis' Prometheus, 29: 411-442.

Mortara, L. and T. Minshall (2011) 'How do large multinational companies implement open innovation?' Technovation 31(10-11): 586-597.

Laursen, K., Reichstein, T and Salter A. (2011) 'Exploring the effect of geographical proximity and university quality on university-industry collaboration in the UK', Regional Studies, 45: 507-523.

Book chapters

Alexy, O., Dahlander, L. (2013) 'Managing open innovation', in Dodgson, M., Gann, D., Phillips, N. (eds) Handbook of Innovation Management, Oxford University Press, Oxford, (forthcoming).

Dee, N., D. Gill, R. Lacher, F. Livesey and T. Minshall (2013) 'A review of research on the role and effectiveness of business incubation for technology-based start-ups', in P. van der Sijde, G. Cook, I. Wakkee, W. During and A. Groen (eds.), High Technology Entrepreneurship. A Festschrift for Ray Oakey, pp. 111-130 (Amsterdam: VU University Press).

Oughton, D., Mortara, L. and Minshall, T. (2013) 'Managing asymmetric relationships in open innovation: lessons from multinational companies and SMEs', in M. Martinez (ed.) Open Innovation in the Food and Beverage Industry (Cambridge: Woodhead).

Salter, A. and Alexy, O. (2013) 'The nature of innovation', in Dodgson, M., Gann, D., Phillips, N. (eds.) Handbook of Innovation Management, Oxford: Oxford University Press, (forthcoming).

Xia, T. and Minshall, T. (2013) 'Understanding patterns and promotion of investments in new firms in emerging science and technology-based industries in the UK', in R. Oakey, A. Groen, P. van der Sijde and G. Cook (eds.) New Technology-based Firms in the New Millennium Volume X (London: Emerald).

Lim, S. S., Platts, K. and Minshall, T. (2012) 'An exploratory study of manufacturing strategy formulation in start-up companies', in Oakey, R., Groen, A., van der Sijde, P. and Cook, G. (eds) New Technology-Based Firms in the New Millennium, Volume IX, London: Emerald Publishing Group: 151-172.

Oughton, D., Mortara, L. and Minshall, T. (2012) 'Managing asymmetric relationships in open innovation: Lessons from multinational companies and SMEs' in Martinez, M.G. (ed.) Open innovation in the food and beverage industry. Cambridge: Woodhead Publishing.

Bascavusoglu-Moreau E. and Tether, B. (2011) 'Registered designs and business performance : exploring the link', in Economics of Design Rights, London: Intellectual Property Office (IPO). 

Dang, R., Mortara, L. Thomson, R. and Minshall, T. (2011) 'Developing a technology intelligence strategy to access knowledge of innovation clusters' in Hülsmann, M. and Pfeffermann, N. Strategies and Communications for Innovations, Berlin and Heidelberg: Springer: 51- 71.

Mortara, L., Napp, J.J., Ford, S. and Minshall, T.H.W. (2011) 'Open innovation activities to foster corporate entrepreneurship' in Cassia, L., Minola, T. and Paleari, S. (eds) Entrepreneurship and Technological Change. Cheltenham, UK and Northampton, MA, USA: Edward Elgar: 293-322.

Research reports

Cosh, A. and Zhang, J.J. with Bullock, A. and Milner, I. (2011), Open Innovation Choices - What is British Enterprise doing?, Centre for Business Research and UK~IRC, University of Cambridge, June.

Working papers

Lubik, S., E. Garnsey and T. Minshall (2013). 'Evolving Toward an Ecosystem Perspective: Market Strategies for Science-based Ventures.' University of Cambridge Centre for Technology Management Working Paper Series 2013/1.

Cosh, A.D. & Zhang, J. (2012) 'Variety of search and innovation: a comparative study of US manufacturing and knowledge intensive business services sectors.' Centre for Business Research Working Papers Series WP No. 431. 

Dee, N., Gill, D., Lacher, R., Livesey, F. and Minshall, T.H.W. (2012) 'A review of the role and effectiveness of business incubation on new ventures with high growth potential', University of Cambridge Centre for Technology Management Working Paper Series: www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/ctm/publications/w_papers/.

Lubik, S., Khater, M., Platts, K. and Minshall, T. (2012) 'Competing on Innovation: A Framework of Firm-Level Innovative Capabilities', University of Cambridge Centre for Strategy and Performance Working Paper Series 2012/01.

Theyel, N. and Cosh, A. (2012) 'Open Innovation - A Gold Mine or Fool's Gold for Young Firms?' (submitted to Academy of Management conference 2012 and published in Best Papers Proceedings).

Dee, N. and Minshall, T. (2011) 'Finance, Innovation and Emerging Industries - a Review', University of Cambridge Centre for Technology Management Working Paper Series No. 2011/2: papers.ssrn.com/sol3/papers.cfm.

Hughes, A. (2011) 'Open Innovation, the Haldane Principle and the New Production of Knowledge: Science Policy and University-Industry Links in the UK after the Financial Crisis', CBR Working Paper series WP 425, Centre for Business Research, University of Cambridge, September.

Minshall, T., Kouris, S. and Mortara, L. (2011) 'Development of an infrastructure to support open innovation,' Open Innovation Research Forum Working Paper Series 2011-1: www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/ctm/teg/oirf_publications.html.

Rincon, L. and Minshall, T. (2011) 'Effect of consultancy services on the R&D and marketing relationship' Open Innovation Research Forum Working Paper Series 2011-2: www.ifm.eng.cam.ac.uk/ctm/teg/oirf_publications.html.

Conference papers

Ahn, J., L. Mortara and T. Minshall (2013) 'The influences of CEO characteristics on open innovation in innovation-oriented SMEs'. R&D Management Association (RADMA) Conference, 26-28 June, Manchester, UK. Alexy, O. (2013) 'The Best of Both Worlds', SEI Faculty Workshop, Lausanne, May, also at Babson Entrepreneurship Conference, Lyon, June.

Cosh, A.D., Hughes, A. & Zhang, J. (2013) 'Internal R&D, external openness and innovation performance of small- and medium-sized family firms', Imperial College, May.

Lubik, S., E. Garnsey and T. Minshall (2013) 'Evolving Toward an Ecosystem Perspective: Market Strategies for Science-based Ventures', DRUID. ESADE, Barcelona, 17-19 June.

Lubik, S., E. Garnsey and T. Minshall (2012) 'Beyond Niche Thinking: Market Selection in Science-Based Ventures', Portland International Centre for Management, Engineering and Technology (PICMET), Vancouver, Canada, July 29 - August 2.

Mina, A., Bascavusoglu-Moreau, E. and Hughes, A. (2012) 'Open Service Innovation and Firm's Search for External Knowledge', Academy of Management Annual Meeting, Boston, August.

Rincón- Argüelles, L., Minshall, T.H.W. and Mortara, L. (2013) 'Effect of innovation management consultancy services on the R&D and marketing relationship'. DRIUD Academy Conference, 16/1/13. Aalborg, Denmark.

Rincón- Argüelles, L., T. H. W. Minshall and R. Phaal (2013) 'Effect of innovation management consultancy services on the R&D and marketing relationship', IAMOT 2013, Porto Alegre, Brazil 14-18 April.

Alexy, O. (2012) 'Citius, Altius, Fortius', DRUID Conference, Copenhagen, June.

Alexy, O. (2012) 'Open for Ideation', EURAM Conference, Rotterdam, June.

Alexy, O. (2012) 'Open for Ideation', Academy of Management Conference, Boston, August, Citius, Altius, Fortius, VHB Tagung, Hamburg, September; also at Strategic Management Society Conference (nominated as one of the best track papers), Prague, October.

Alexy, O. (2012) 'The Emergence of Openness', Research Policy Special Issue Conference on Open Innovation, Imperial College, London, June.

Criscuolo, P., Salter, A. and Ter Wal, A.L.J. (2012) 'Going underground: Bootlegging and individual innovation performance', EURAM pre-conference, Rotterdam, 6 June.

Criscuolo, P., Salter, A. and Ter Wal, A.L.J. (2012) 'Going underground: Bootlegging and individual innovation performance', 2nd Tilburg Innovation Conference, Tilburg, 17 June.

Criscuolo, P., Salter, A. and Ter Wal, A.L.J. (2012) 'Going underground: Bootlegging and individual innovation performance', DRUID, Copenhagen, June. 

Criscuolo, P., Salter, A. and Ter Wal, A.L.J. (2012) 'Going underground: Bootlegging and individual innovation performance', Academy of Management conference, Boston, MA, August. 

Criscuolo, P., Salter, A. and Ter Wal, A.L.J. (2012) 'Going underground: Bootlegging and individual innovation performance', DRUID-Winter, Cambridge. 

Lubik, S., Garnsey, E. and Minshall, T. (2012) 'Beyond Niche Thinking: Market Selection in Science-Based Ventures', Portland International Centre for Management, Engineering and Technology (PICMET), Vancouver, Canada, July 29 - August 2.

Mina, A. and Bascavusoglu-Moreau, E. (2012) International Schumpeter Conference, University of Queensland, Brisbane, 2-5 July.

Mina, A. and Bascavusoglu-Moreau, E. (2012) 'Open Innovation: New Insights and Evidence', Imperial College London, 25-26 June. 

Mina, A. and Bascavusoglu-Moreau, E. (2012) DRUID Summer Conference, Copenhagen Business School, Copenhagen, June 19-21.

Mortara, L., Ford, S., Minshall, T. and Probert, D. (2012) 'Inbound Open Innovation: a Technology Acquisition Process Model UK Innovation Research Centre: "Open Innovation: New Insights and Evidence"' A. Salter, J. West, H. Chesbrough and W. Vanhaverbeke. Imperial College, London: 25-26 June.

Salter, A., Ter Wal, A.L.J., Criscuolo, P. and Alexy, O. (2012) 'Open for ideation: individual-level openness and idea generation in R&D' Academy of Management conference, Boston, MA, August.

Salter, A., Ter Wal, A.L.J., Criscuolo, P. and Alexy, O. (2012) 'Open for ideation: individual-level openness and idea generation in R&D' EURAM conference, Rotterdam, 8 June.

Salter, A., Ter Wal, A.L.J., Criscuolo, P. and Alexy, O. (2012) 'Open for ideation: individual-level openness and idea generation in R&D' DRUID, Copenhagen, June.

Salter, A., Criscuolo, P. and Ter Wal, A.L.J. (2012) 'At the frontlines of open innovation' Academy of Management conference, Boston MA, August

Theyel, N. and Cosh, A. (2012) 'Open Innovation - a Gold Mine or Fool's Gold for Young Firms?' Academy of Management, Boston, MA, August.

Theyel, N. and Cosh, A. (2012) 'Open Innovation - a Gold Mine or Fool's Gold for Young Firms?' International Doctoral Conference, Doshisha University, Kyoto, Japan, February.

Vernet, A., Salter, A., Kilduff, M. (2012) 'Catching the wave, the role of closure in an individual's ability to recognize opportunities', External Seminar Series, Management Department, University of Bologna, Italy, 15 May.

Weiss, D. and T. Minshall (2012) 'New perspectives on Open Innovation: The role of relative proximity on open innovation implementation in UK high-tech SMEs'. 26th International Conference on Manufacturing Research, 11-13 September. Aston Business School, Birmingham, UK.

Alexy, O. George, G. and Salter A. (2011) 'From Sensing Shape to Shaping Sense: A Dynamic Model of Absorptive Capacity and Endogenous Spillovers', included in Best paper proceedings, Academy of Management Meetings, San Antonio, United States, August 8-13.

Alexy, O. (2011) 'Ethical Considerations in Internet Code Reuse', Academy of Management Conference, San Antonio, August.

Alexy, O. (2011) 'Cui Bono', Academy of Management Conference, San Antonio, August 2011.

Criscuolo, P., Salter, A. and Ter Wal, A.L.J. (2011) 'Going Underground: Bootlegging and Individual Innovative Performance', Invited speaker, Freeman Centre, Science and Technology Policy Research (SPRU) and Centre for Technology and Research on Innovation Management (CENTRIM), University of Sussex and University of Brighton, East Sussex, November 11 2011. 

Criscuolo, P., Salter, A. and Ter Wal, A.L.J., (2011) 'The Role of Proximity in Shaping Knowledge Sharing in Professional Services Firms', Academy of Management Meeting, San Antonio, USA, August.

Dee, N., S. Lubik, F. Livesey and T. Minshall (2011) 'The Role of Entrepreneurial Finance as a Selection Mechanism in the Evolution of Industries', Academy of Management Conference, San Antonio, Texas, August.

Mina, A. and Bascavusoglu-Moreau, E. (2011) AoM Annual Conference, San Antonio, Texas, 12-16 August.

Mina, A. and Bascavusoglu-Moreau, E. (2011) UK-IRC Open Innovation Workshop, Queens College, Cambridge, 7-8 July.

Perkmann, M, Salter, A and Tartari, V. (2011) 'Reaching Across Institutional Logics: The Hybridization of Practices in University-Industry Relations', Academy of Management Meetings, San Antonio, United States, August 8-13, 2011.

Salter, A. (2011) 'Open Innovation', Invited speaker, Global Economic Symposium, Kiel, Germany, October 5-7, 2011.

Tartari, V. and Salter, A. (2011) 'Is it a Man's World? Gender Differences in University-Industry Collaboration', UK-IRC/AIM Workshop on 'The Wealth of University: Management Perspectives', Imperial College London, 18 October.

Theyel, N. and Cosh, A. (2011) 'Open Innovation - a Gold Mine or Fool's Gold for Young Firms?' Winter Doctoral Conference, Cambridge Judge Business School, December.

Zhou, Y., G. Xu, T. H. W. Minshall and J. Su (2011) 'A Policy Dimension Required for Technology Roadmapping: Learning from the Development of Emerging Wind Energy Industry in China', Portland International Conference on the Management of Engineering and Technology (PICMET) 2011, Oregon, US, July 31 - August 4.

Zhou, Y., G. Xu, J. Su, T. H. W. Minshall and Q. Zhi (2011) 'Roadmapping an Emerging Technology in Clean Energy Industry: A Case Study of Dimethyl Ether Development in China', 2011 IEEE International Conference on Industrial Engineering and Engineering Management, Singapore, 6-9 December.

Other principal investigators

Alan Hughes
Michael Kitson
Andrea Mina
Elif Bascavusoglu-Moreau
Tim Minshall (University of Cambridge)
Letizia Mortara (University of Cambridge)
Ammon Salter (Imperial College London/University of Bath)
Oliver Alexy (Imperial College London/TUM School of Management)
Gerald Avison (Business)
Chas Sims (Business)

Project dates

2009-2014

Funding

ESRC, NESTA, BIS, TSB